MPU-6050 Module Guide: Datasheet, Comparison and More

Author: Release time:2023-11-16 Source: Font: Big Middle Small View count:453

Imagine a world where your motions can be tracked and translated into digital data, where your smartphone knows exactly how you're holding it, or where your game character moves as you do. This isn't just imagination, but a reality made possible by the MPU6050 sensor module. This tiny but powerful device has revolutionized motion sensing in various gadgets and applications. In this article, we'll delve into the MPU6050's fascinating capabilities and how it's shaping the technology around us.

Introduction to the MPU6050 Module

The MPU6050 sensor module marks a significant advance in motion tracking technology. Combining a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer, it offers an impressive six degrees of freedom (DoF). 

Understanding the MPU6050 Module

What Sets the MPU6050 Apart

At its heart, the MPU6050 serves dual roles. As a gyroscope, it's adept at measuring rotational rates, which are critical for determining orientation in space. As an accelerometer, it captures linear acceleration from movement or gravity, allowing for detailed motion tracking in 3D space.

MPU6050 Pinout

MPU-6050 Pinout.jpg

Pin NumberPin NamePin Detail
1VCCPower supply input, typically 3.3V or 5V
3SCLI2C Clock Line (Serial Clock Line)
4SDAI2C Data Line (Serial Data Line)
5XDAAuxiliary I2C Data Line (Auxiliary Data)
6XCLAuxiliary I2C Clock Line (Auxiliary Clock)
7AD0I2C Address Select (Low for 0x68, High for 0x69)
8INTInterrupt Output

MPU6050 Datasheet

The MPU-6050 datasheet provides detailed information about this 6-axis MotionTracking device, which combines a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer. Key features include a programmable full-scale range for both gyroscopes (±250, ±500, ±1000, ±2000 degrees/sec) and accelerometers (±2g, ±4g, ±8g, ±16g). It outlines the MPU-6050's pinout, electrical properties, and I2C communication protocol specifics. Designed for low-power consumption, it's ideal for mobile and wearable technology applications. The datasheet also includes information on the device's size, power requirements, and additional features like orientation and tap detection, making it a crucial resource for integration into various systems.

MPU-6050 Datasheet PDF Download

Technical Specifications

Specification CategoryDetails
Part NumberMPU-6050
ManufacturerTDK Corporation.
TypeMEMS (6-axis) Gyroscope and Accelerometer
Gyroscope Sensing Range±250, ±500, ±1000, ±2000 °/sec
Accelerometer Sensing Range±2g, ±4g, ±8g, ±16g
Gyroscope Sensitivity131 LSBs/°/sec (for ±250 °/sec)
Accelerometer Sensitivity16384 LSB/g (for ±2g)
Electrical Characteristics
Supply Voltage2.3V to 3.4V
Operating Current3.9mA
InterfaceI2C, up to 400 kHz
Physical Characteristics
Operating Temperature-40°C to +85°C
PackageQFN (Quad Flat No-leads), 4x4x0.9 mm

Features of the MPU6050

  • 6-Axis MotionTracking: Integrates a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer

  • Gyroscope Range: Captures a wide range of rotational motions

  • Accelerometer Range: Measures a spectrum of linear movements

  • Digital Output: High-resolution 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion

  • Digital Motion Processor™ (DMP): Offloads complex computations from the host processor

  • Programmable Digital Filters: Customizable for both gyroscope and accelerometer

  • I2C Communication Protocol: Broad compatibility with microcontrollers and systems

  • Auxiliary I2C Bus: Extends to 9-axis motion tracking

  • Integrated Temperature Sensor: For sensor reading compensation

  • Programmable Interrupts: Supports advanced features like gesture recognition

  • Low Power Consumption: Ideal for battery-powered devices

  • Small Footprint: Suitable for space-constrained applications

Comparing the MPU6050 with Other Sensors

Against the ADXL345


While the ADXL345 is solely an accelerometer, the MPU6050 steps up the game by incorporating gyroscope functionality, offering a more comprehensive solution for applications that require both orientation and rotational data.

Versus the MPU6000


The MPU6000 shares similarities with the MPU6050 but stands out with its dual I2C and SPI interface options, enhancing its compatibility with a wider range of microcontrollers.

Versatile Capabilities

Motion Tracking and Analysis: Revolutionizes gaming, virtual reality, gesture control, and sports analytics.

Orientation and Navigation: Key in drones, robotics, and wearable tech.

Activity Monitoring: Tracks fitness and health metrics like walking and cycling.

Stabilization Solutions: Essential in camera stabilization and vehicle control systems.

Setting Up and Utilizing the MPU6050 with Arduino and ESP32

Connecting the MPU6050 to Arduino


  • VCC: Connect the VCC pin of the MPU6050 to the 3.3V output on the Arduino.

  • GND: Attach the GND pin to any ground pin on the Arduino.

  • SCL: Link the SCL (Serial Clock) pin to the A5 pin on the Arduino Uno (or the SCL pin on other Arduino models).

  • SDA: Connect the SDA (Serial Data) pin to the A4 pin on the Arduino Uno (or the SDA pin on other models).

  • INT (Optional): The INT pin can be connected to a digital pin on the Arduino for utilizing the interrupt feature.

Connecting the MPU6050 to ESP32

  • VCC: Link to the ESP32's 3.3V output.

  • GND: Attach to a ground pin on the ESP32.

  • SCL: Connect to the default SCL pin of the I2C bus on the ESP32 (usually GPIO 22).

  • SDA: Connect to the default SDA pin of the I2C bus on the ESP32 (commonly GPIO 21).

  • INT (Optional): Can be connected to any GPIO pin for using interrupts.

  • Calibration and Testing of the MPU6050

Steps for Calibrating the MPU6050

  1. Stable Surface: Ensure the MPU6050 is placed on a perfectly level surface.

  2. Calibration Sketch: Run a dedicated calibration sketch in your Arduino IDE to generate calibration values.

  3. Record Values: Carefully note the resulting accelerometer and gyroscope calibration values.

  4. Update Code: Integrate these values into your main project code to enhance accuracy.

Calibration Specifics

Calibration is crucial to correct sensor biases and drift.

Ensure a vibration-free, stationary setup during calibration for optimal results.

Programming and Libraries for MPU6050

Using MPU6050 with Arduino

  • Library Installation: In Arduino IDE, go to Sketch > Include Library > Manage Libraries. Search and install "MPU6050".

  • Basic Usage: Access examples via File > Examples > MPU6050 in the IDE for fundamental sensor reading codes.

  • Customization: Modify the examples or create bespoke code to meet your project requirements.

Integrating MPU6050 with Raspberry Pi

Python Libraries: Use libraries like smbus for I2C interfacing.

Wiring Setup: Connect SDA and SCL to the Raspberry Pi’s GPIO pins (typically GPIO 2 for SDA and GPIO 3 for SCL), along with power and ground.

Python Scripting: Write or use existing Python scripts to read data from the MPU6050. Manage I2C communication effectively to capture sensor data.

Advanced Insights and Comparisons of MPU6050

MPU6050: Cost-Effectiveness and Easy Accessibility

Affordability: The MPU6050 typically ranging from a few dollars to around $10 USD, offering a cost-effective solution for motion sensing needs.

Availability: Veswin Electronics has a large number of original and brand new MPU6050 in stock.Contact us now! 

Comparative Analysis: MPU6050 and Its Alternatives

MPU6050 vs. MPU9250:

Sensor Capabilities: The MPU9250 steps ahead with a 9-axis system, adding a magnetometer to the 6-axis setup of the MPU6050, enhancing spatial orientation capabilities.

Communication Flexibility: Both support I2C, but the MPU9250 also accommodates SPI, offering greater versatility.

Suitable Applications: Opt for the MPU9250 when compass functionality (heading information) is vital, like in advanced navigation systems.

MPU6050 vs. BNO055:

Sensor Fusion: The BNO055's onboard sensor fusion algorithm streamlines software development by simplifying the data processing requirements.

Data Output: Unlike the MPU6050’s raw data output, the BNO055 can directly provide processed orientation data (like quaternion, Euler angles).

Pricing: Reflecting its sophisticated features, the BNO055 is usually priced higher than the MPU6050.

Choosing the Optimal Sensor Module for Various Applications

Robotics and Drones: For basic motion sensing, the MPU6050 suffices. However, for comprehensive navigation requiring compass data, consider the MPU9250.

Wearable Devices: The MPU6050’s low power consumption and compact size make it ideal for wearables. The BNO055, offering advanced orientation data, is suitable where space and power are not major constraints.

VR and Gaming: In these domains, precision and responsiveness are crucial. While the MPU6050 is competent, 9-axis sensors like the MPU9250 provide a more rounded solution for 3D space mapping.

Educational and Hobbyist Projects: The MPU6050 is highly recommended due to its simplicity, affordability, and strong online community and resource support.

Practical Applications and Projects: Unleashing the Potential of MPU6050

Innovative Uses in Technology

Robotics: The MPU6050 is vital for balance in robotics, providing precise data for equilibrium maintenance.

Drones: Key for stabilization and navigation in drones, aiding in complex maneuvers and control.

Wearable Tech: In devices like fitness trackers and smartwatches, it tracks activities and gestures with precision.

Virtual Reality (VR): It enriches VR experiences by accurately tracking user movements for more interactive environments.

Automotive: Used in advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) for enhanced safety features like collision avoidance and stability control.

DIY Projects and Community Contributions

Hand Gesture-Controlled Robots: Create robots or drones that respond to hand movements using the MPU6050.

DIY VR Controllers: Innovate immersive gaming experiences with self-made VR controllers.

Custom Fitness Trackers: Design wearable devices for personalized activity and orientation tracking.

Educational Tools: Utilize in teaching concepts in physics and mathematics through hands-on motion tracking experiments.

Project Case: Building a Hand Gesture Controlled Robot using the MPU6050


The aim of this project is to demonstrate the practical application of the MPU6050 by creating a robot that can be controlled through hand gestures. This project emphasizes the MPU6050’s capabilities in sensing motion and orientation, showcasing its use in robotics and human-machine interface applications.


MPU6050 module

Arduino UNO (or any compatible microcontroller)

A two-wheel robot chassis kit (including motors and wheels)

Motor Driver (e.g., L298N)

A battery pack (for powering the Arduino and motors)

Jumper wires

Optional: Bluetooth module for wireless communication


The MPU6050 will be used to detect tilt and motion gestures of the hand. These gestures will be translated into commands to control the movement of the robot – forward, backward, left, and right. The Arduino microcontroller processes the MPU6050 data and sends appropriate signals to the motor driver, which in turn controls the robot's motors.


Setting Up MPU6050 with Arduino:

Connect the MPU6050 to the Arduino using I2C communication.

Calibrate the MPU6050 to ensure accurate readings.

Develop a program to read the accelerometer and gyroscope data from the MPU6050.

Robot Assembly

Assemble the two-wheel robot chassis.

Connect the motors to the motor driver, and then to the Arduino.

Programming for Gesture Control

Write a program for the Arduino to interpret the MPU6050 data. For example, tilting the sensor forward makes the robot move forward, tilting it to the right makes the robot turn right, and so on.

Implement a safety feature to stop the robot if no gesture is detected for a certain period.

Testing and Calibration

Test the robot in a controlled environment.

Calibrate the sensitivity and response of the MPU6050 to ensure smooth operation.

Optional Advanced Features

Integrate a Bluetooth module for wireless control.

Develop an app or use an existing app for remote gesture control.

This project showcases the versatility and efficiency of the MPU6050 in real-time motion tracking and control applications. It demonstrates how the module can be integrated into robotics, offering a hands-on experience in building and programming. 

Resource Hub and Tutorials

Explore a plethora of online resources, including detailed MPU6050 Arduino tutorials, accessible for beginners to advanced users.

Engage with vibrant online communities on platforms like GitHub, Instructables, and Reddit, offering a wealth of projects, ideas, and code libraries.

Troubleshooting and Optimization Strategies

Connectivity: Ensure solid soldering and connections; consider using pull-up resistors on I2C lines for stability.

Data Precision: Perform regular calibrations for enhanced sensor accuracy.

Data Processing: Implement filtering algorithms for smoother data output.

Maximizing MPU6050's Efficiency

Optimal Data Handling: Efficiently read and process sensor data to maintain microcontroller performance.

Sensor Longevity: Protect the sensor from physical stress and ensure a stable power supply for extended lifespan.

Advanced Programming: Tap into the capabilities of the Digital Motion Processor (DMP) for sophisticated applications.


The MPU6050 sensor opens a world of possibilities, from simple DIY projects to complex technological innovations. Its blend of affordability and ease of use makes it a prime choice for educational and creative endeavors in motion tracking and orientation sensing. With the MPU6050, students, hobbyists, and engineers alike can delve into the exciting realm of gyroscopes and accelerometers, uncovering endless opportunities for learning and project development.


What does the MPU6050 do?

The MPU6050 is a sensor module combining a 3-axis gyroscope and a 3-axis accelerometer. It measures rotational motion and linear acceleration along three axes, making it suitable for motion tracking, orientation detection, and gesture recognition in devices like drones, smartphones, and gaming controllers.

What is the difference between the MPU6000 and MPU6050?

The primary distinction between the MPU6000 and MPU6050 lies in their communication interfaces. The MPU6000 supports both I2C and SPI, offering versatility for various microcontroller interfaces. In contrast, the MPU6050 only supports I2C. Both sensors provide similar gyroscope and accelerometer capabilities.

How does the MPU6050 compare to the ADXL345?

While both the MPU6050 and ADXL345 are motion sensors, the MPU6050 is a 6-axis sensor (3-axis gyroscope and accelerometer), whereas the ADXL345 is solely a 3-axis accelerometer. Thus, the MPU6050 can measure both rotational motion and linear acceleration, whereas the ADXL345 measures only linear acceleration.

What is the price range for the MPU6050?

The MPU6050 is known for being affordable, typically priced between a few dollars to around $10 USD per unit. Prices may vary depending on the supplier, purchase quantity, and market conditions.

How do you calibrate an MPU6050 module for accurate readings?

Calibration of the MPU6050 involves placing the sensor on a stable, level surface and running a calibration program to determine accelerometer and gyroscope offsets. These offsets are then applied in the main program to fine-tune the sensor's readings, enhancing accuracy.

Can the MPU6050 be used with an ESP32?

Yes, the MPU6050 is compatible with the ESP32 microcontroller, connecting through the I2C communication protocol. The SCL and SDA pins of the MPU6050 need to be connected to the corresponding I2C pins on the ESP32.

What are the key features of the MPU6050 accelerometer?

  • 3-axis acceleration measurement with ranges of ±2g, ±4g, ±8g, and ±16g.

  • 16-bit digital output.

  • Low power consumption.

  • High sensitivity and accuracy.

  • Integrated Digital Motion Processor (DMP) for enhanced processing.

How do I connect the MPU6050 to an Arduino?

  • Connect the VCC pin of the MPU6050 to the 3.3V output on the Arduino.

  • Connect the GND pin to a ground pin on the Arduino.

  • Connect the SCL pin to the A5 pin (or SCL pin) on the Arduino.

  • Connect the SDA pin to the A4 pin (or SDA pin) on the Arduino.

What is the MPU6050's register map?

The MPU6050's register map consists of addresses used to configure the sensor and read values from it. These registers enable setting parameters like gyroscope and accelerometer ranges, configuring power settings, and reading sensor data. Detailed in the MPU6050's datasheet, this map is crucial for programming the sensor for specific uses.

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