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Principle and the basic structure of fiber optic communication system

Author: Release time:2022-07-27 Source: Font: Big Middle Small View count:42

Fiber optic communication technology has emerged from optical communication as one of the main pillars of modern communication and plays an important role in modern telecommunication networks. At the same time, it is the main means of transmission in modern communication networks.

Fiber optic communication principle is: at the transmitting end, to first convert the transmitted information (such as voice) into an electrical signal, and then modulated to the laser beam from the laser so that the light intensity with the amplitude of the electrical signal (frequency) and change, and then transmitted through the fiber; at the receiving end, the detector receives the optical signal and converts it into an electrical signal, demodulated to recover the original information.

What is the basic structure of fiber optic communication system?

(1) Optical transmitter

The optical transmitter is the terminal that performs the electrical/optical conversion. It consists of a light source, a driver and a modulator. Its role is to modulate the light wave from the light source into a modulated light wave by the electrical signal from the electrical terminal and then coupling the modulated optical signal to the optical fiber or fiber optic cable for transmission. The terminal computer is conventional electronic communication equipment.

(2) Optical receiver

The optical receiver is an optical transceiver that performs optical/electrical conversion. It consists of a photodetector and an optical amplifier. Its role is to convert the optical signal transmitted by the optical fiber or optical cable into an electrical signal through the photodetector and then amplify the weak electrical signal to a sufficient level through an amplifier circuit to be sent to the electrical end of the receiver for diversion.

(3) Optical fiber or fiber optic cable

Or fiber optic cable constitutes the transmission path of light. Its role is to couple the modulated optical signal from the sender to the photodetector at the receiver after long-distance transmission through fiber optic or fiber optic cable to complete the task of transmitting the information.

(4) Repeater

The repeater comprises the photodetector, light source and judgment regeneration circuit. It has two roles: one is to compensate for the attenuation of the optical signal when transmitted in the fiber; the other is the waveform distortion approximation pulse management.

(5) Passive devices, such as fiber optic connectors and couplers

Because the fiber drawing process and fiber optic cable construction conditions limit optical fibre or fibre optic cable construction, the drawing length of optical fiber is also limited (e.g. 1Km). Therefore, a fiber optic line may have the problem of connecting multiple fibers. Therefore, the connection between optical fibers, and the connection and coupling between optical fibers and optical terminators is critical for using passive devices such as fiber optic connectors and couplers.

Final words 

Fiber optic access equipment, a passive optical network (PON), optical line terminal (OLT), optical network unit (ONU), wavelength division multiplexer, etc. Fiber optic communication technology is one of the products of the development of information technology and is complementary to the development of information technology. Presently, the application of fiber optic communication technology has become very popular, and the technical development trend is very clear. It will continue to play an important role in future socio-economic activities.

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