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Computer CPU cooling module composition principle

Author: Release time:2022-07-23 Source: Font: Big Middle Small View count:52

Heat dissipation is a very critical technical issue for notebook computers. The heat emission is related to the stability of the whole system and the product's life. According to statistics, 80% of computer hardware failures are caused by "temperature." Especially for notebook computers and some small mobile terminal products, effective heat dissipation has a very important significance.


The computer CPU cooling module is composed of the following principles.


(1) The heat generated by the CPU when working is transferred to the heat sink.


(2) The heat from the heat sink is quickly transferred to the fan outlet through the heat sink tube.


(3) The cooling fan, using the air convection principle, will eventually dissipate heat outside the host computer.


1. Cooling fan


A laptop cooling fan plays the role of forced convection. Its purpose is to run the computer host heat generated by the way the airflow, the distribution of the machine outside the host, belongs to the active cooling method. Currently, the laptop fan type can be divided into the following two types: axial fan and radiation type fan (centrifugal blower).


Axial fans, with mature technology and lower cost. You can adjust the airflow by adjusting the RPM. The airflow has a vortex, the shadow effect of the case occupies a large volume, and there is a depletion layer of airflow. This method is used on desktop computers. It is not common on laptops with strict volume requirements.


Radial (centrifugal blower) fans with thin blades, no vortex, good airflow directionality, higher airflow density, small volume for point use, and relatively high cost. The noise emitted during its operation is also lower than that of the axial type fan.


2. Heat sink and heat pipe


The heat sink is a basic method of heat dissipation. Generally speaking, the larger the heat sink area, the higher the efficiency of heat transfer, and the more effective the heat can be distributed. It is more common to have a metal heat sink at the bottom and top of the motherboard; at the CPU location, there is a system to assist in heat dissipation to release the heat generated by the CPU.


How the heat sink tube works: In a vacuum, the boiling point of water is very low. If heated at one end of the tube, the water will evaporate and heat up to the other end, the water will cool down and then flow back, and so on, the heat will keep moving, similar to the working principle of a cooler.


A typical heat pipe comprises a tube shell, liquid-absorbing core, and end caps. The tube will be pumped to the negative pressure and filled with the appropriate amount of working fluid so that the liquid-absorbing core capillary porous material immediately adjacent to the inner wall of the tube is filled with liquid and then sealed. One end of the tube is the evaporation section (heating section), and the other is the condensation section (cooling section). According to the needs of the two sections can be arranged in the middle of the adiabatic section. When one end of the heat pipe is heated, the liquid in the capillary core evaporates and vaporizes, and the stream flows under a small pressure difference to the other end to release heat and condense into a liquid. Then the liquid flows back to the evaporation section along the porous material by the action of capillary force. So the cycle has been heated from one end of the heat pipe to the other.


The heat pipe has no moving parts, all parts are completely sealed inside, and there is no need to consume batteries. At the same time, it can be effective for a long time.


3. Heat sink


Heat sink holes are also one of the important means of heat dissipation in laptops. Generally, in the machine, around and at the bottom of the legs, to open a large number of cooling holes, the heat in the machine can be dispersed through these holes to the surrounding air. With the cooling holes with heat dissipation, some laptops also use special internal air channel design, heat dissipation hole location, and internal structure layout to form a better air circulation environment to enhance heat dissipation.


4. Keyboard


The back of the notebook has a built-in keyboard composed of metal materials with good thermal conductivity. The metal surface of the keyboard has a very pair of small concave and convex holes; using the air convection principle, the higher temperature heat flow will be promptly dispersed through the keys of the keyboard, effectively balancing the overall temperature of the computer host.


5. Metal casing


Metal laptop computer host shell can effectively disperse the computer motherboard, CPU, and other related functional components to generate heat when running and reduce the machine's temperature so that the computer system always runs safely and quickly.


The thermal conductivity of magnesium-aluminum alloy casing is much better than aluminum metal and engineering plastics, which largely reduces the number of cooling fans and cooling windows, reduces volume and weight and reduces power consumption and costs. Most manufacturers now use this technology for their mid- to high-end products.

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